Image-Guided Medical Robotics Lab

Michigan Robotics Kellogg Eye Center

Publications

The IGMR Lab disseminates work through peer-reviewed journal and conference papers as well as presentations at leading conferences in robotics, biomedical imaging, and ophthalmology.

Journal

  1. M. Draelos, “Time-Optimal Spiral Trajectories With Closed-Form Solutions.” IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 2213–2220, 2023.
  2. A. Song, K.-M. Roh, J. B. Lusk, N. G. Valikodath, E. M. Lad, M. Draelos, P. Ortiz, R. G. Theophanous, A. T. Limkakeng, J. A. Izatt, R. P. McNabb, and A. N. Kuo, “Robotic Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Imaging for Emergency Department Patients: A Pilot Study for Emergency Physicians’ Diagnostic Performance.” Annals of Emergency Medicine, 2023.
  3. M. Draelos, C. Viehland, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Adaptive Point-Scan Imaging beyond the Frame Rate-Resolution Limit with Scene-Reactive Scan Trajectories.” Optica, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1276–1288, Nov. 2022.
  4. Y. Tian, M. Draelos, R. P. McNabb, K. Hauser, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical Coherence Tomography Refraction and Optical Path Length Correction for Image-Guided Corneal Surgery.” Biomedical Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 5035–5049, Sep. 2022.
  5. J. Zhang, R. Qian, K. C. Zhou, C. Viehland, M. Draelos, A.-H. Dhalla, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Wide-Field Spectral-Scanning FMCW Coherent 3D Imaging and Velocimetry.” Optics Letters, vol. 47, no. 16, pp. 4064–4067, Aug. 2022.
  6. W. Edwards, G. Tang, Y. Tian, M. Draelos, J. Izatt, A. Kuo, and K. Hauser, “Data-Driven Modelling and Control for Robot Needle Insertion in Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty.” IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 7, pp. 1526–1533, 2022.
  7. P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, C. Viehland, R. Qian, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Robotically Aligned Optical Coherence Tomography with 5 Degree of Freedom Eye Tracking for Subject Motion and Gaze Compensation.” Biomedical Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 7361–7376, Dec. 2021.
  8. M. Draelos, P. Ortiz, R. Qian, C. Viehland, R. McNabb, K. Hauser, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Contactless Optical Coherence Tomography of the Eyes of Freestanding Individuals with a Robotic Scanner.” Nature Biomedical Engineering, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 726–736, Jul. 2021.
  9. B. Keller, M. Draelos, K. Zhou, A. Kuo, G. Konidaris, K. Hauser, and J. Izatt, “OCT Guided Robotic Ophthalmic Microsurgery via Reinforcement Learning from Demonstrations.” IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 1207–1218, 2020.
  10. M. Draelos, G. Tang, B. Keller, A. Kuo, K. Hauser, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Robotic Needle Insertion for Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty.” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 2073–2083, 2020.
  11. M. Draelos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, A. Kuo, and J. Izatt, “Real-Time Visualization and Interaction with Static and Live Optical Coherence Tomography Volumes in Immersive Virtual Reality.” Biomedical Optical Express, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 2825–2843, Jun. 2018.
  12. B. Keller, M. Draelos, G. Tang, S. Farsiu, A. N. Kuo, K. Hauser, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Corneal Segmentation and 3D Needle Tracking in Intrasurgical OCT.” Biomedical Optics Express, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 2716–2732, Jun. 2018.
  13. O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, C. Viehland, B. Keller, M. Draelos, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Review of Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications.” Biomedical Optics Express, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1607–1637, Mar. 2017.
  14. N. Deshpande, E. Grant, T. C. Henderson, and M. T. Draelos, “Autonomous Navigation Using Received Signal Strength and Bearing-Only Pseudogradient Interpolation .” Robotics and Autonomous Systems , vol. 75, Part B, pp. 129–144, Jan. 2016.

Conference (Peer-Reviewed)

These conference publications are peer-reviewed and indexed. In most cases, the associated manuscripts are archived on IEEE Xplore. Acceptance rates are listed if known.

  1. H. Pan, C. W. Lim, K. King, R. Guan, and M. Draelos, “Active Motion Cancellation for Robotic Optical Coherence Tomography of Moving Eyes,” in IEEE International Symposium on Medical Robotics, 2024, under review.
  2. M. Draelos, P. Ortiz, A. Narawane, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Robotic Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Subjects with Posture-Invariant Head and Eye Alignment in Six Degrees of Freedom.” in International Symposium on Medical Robotics (ISMR), 2023, pp. 1–7, Best Paper Award – Honorable Mention.
  3. P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, A. Narawane, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Robotically-Aligned Optical Coherence Tomography with Gaze Tracking for Image Montaging of the Retina.” in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), May 2022, pp. 3783–3789, 43% acceptance rate.
  4. Y. Tian, M. Draelos, G. Tang, R. Qian, A. Kuo, J. Izatt, and K. Hauser, “Toward Autonomous Robotic Micro-Suturing Using Optical Coherence Tomography Calibration and Path Planning.” in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), May 2020, pp. 5516–5522, 42% acceptance rate.
  5. M. Draelos, P. Ortiz, R. Qian, B. Keller, K. Hauser, A. Kuo, and J. Izatt, “Automatic Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Stationary and Moving Eyes with a Robotically-Aligned Scanner.” in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), May 2019, pp. 8897–8903, 44% acceptance rate.
  6. M. Draelos, B. Keller, G. Tang, A. Kuo, K. Hauser, and J. Izatt, “Real-Time Image-Guided Cooperative Robotic Assist Device for Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty.” in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), May 2018, pp. 1–9, 41% acceptance rate.
  7. M. Draelos, B. Keller, C. Toth, A. Kuo, K. Hauser, and J. Izatt, “Teleoperating Robots from Arbitrary Viewpoints in Surgical Contexts.” in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Sep. 2017, pp. 2549–2555, 45% acceptance rate.
  8. Q. Qiu, Z. Chang, M. Draelos, J. Chen, A. Bronstein, and G. Sapiro, “Low-Cost Gaze and Pulse Analysis Using RealSense.” in EAI International Conference on Wireless Mobile Communication and Healthcare (MOBIHEALTH), Oct. 2015, pp. 276–279.
  9. M. Draelos, Q. Qiu, A. Bronstein, and G. Sapiro, “Intel RealSense = Real Low Cost Gaze.” in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Sep. 2015, pp. 2520–2524.
  10. N. Deshpande, E. Grant, M. Draelos, and T. C. Henderson, “Received Signal Strength Based Bearing-Only Robot Navigation in a Sensor Network Field.” in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Sep. 2014, pp. 4618–4623.
  11. J. F. Giallo II, L. S. Mattos, S. Miller, Z. Neinstedt, M. Draelos, G. Lee, and E. Grant, “Design and Validation of a Medical Robotic System for Laser Phonomicrosurgery,” in International Conference on Computer Applications in Industry and Engineering (CAINE), Nov. 2012, pp. 225–230.
  12. T. C. Henderson, E. Cohen, A. Joshi, E. Grant, M. Draelos, and N. Deshpande, “Symmetry as a Basis for Perceptual Fusion.” in IEEE Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (MFI), Sep. 2012, pp. 101–107.
  13. M. Draelos, N. Deshpande, and E. Grant, “The Kinect up Close: Adaptations for Short-Range Imaging.” in IEEE Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (MFI), Sep. 2012, pp. 251–256.

Conference Abstracts

  1. C. W. Lim, H. Pan, K. King, and M. Draelos, “Predictive scan aiming for optical coherence tomography imaging during simulated nystagmus,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2024, under review.
  2. D. M. Rajani, F. Seghizzi, Y.-L. Lai, K. G. Buchta, and M. Draelos, “Low-latency surgical scene imaging with scene prediction and dynamics-aware scans,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2024, under review.
  3. R. P. McNabb, Y. Tian, A.-H. Dhalla, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, J. A. Izatt, and A. N. Kuo, “In vivo megahertz A-scan rate ophthalmic robotically aligned optical coherence tomography,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2024, under review.
  4. H. Shi, P. Ortiz, J. D. Li, A. Narawane, R. Trout, Y. Tian, M. Draelos, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Tracked real-time intraoperative OCT using synthetically trained machine learning models,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2024, under review.
  5. M. McCloud, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, J. A. Izatt, A. N. Kuo, and R. P. McNabb, “Robot integrated dual-view color ophthalmic slit lamp system,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2024, under review.
  6. C. W. Lim, Y. Kum, K. King, R. Guan, and M. Draelos, “Towards Robotic Optical Coherence Tomography of Moving Eyes,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2024, to appear.
  7. D. M. Rajani, F. Seghizzi, Y.-L. Lai, K. G. Buchta, and M. Draelos, “Adaptive Scanning OCT with Scene Prediction and Dynamics-Aware Scans,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2024, to appear.
  8. H. Shi, P. Ortiz, J. D. Li, A. Narawane, R. Trout, Y. Tian, M. Draelos, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Synthetic data algorithm development for high-speed instrument tracking of OCT imaging during anterior chamber ophthalmic surgeries,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2024, to appear.
  9. M. McCloud, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, J. A. Izatt, A. N. Kuo, and R. P. McNabb, “Development of an ophthalmic slit lamp module with dual color cameras for use with an autonomously aligning robotic arm,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2024, to appear.
  10. R. Laoprasert, G. Funkenbusch, M. Draelos, J. A. Izatt, R. P. McNabb, and A. N. Kuo, “Vortex open-source library based OCT software enabling real-time, interlaced whole-eye imaging,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2024, to appear.
  11. R. P. McNabb, Y. Tian, A.-H. Dhalla, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, J. A. Izatt, and A. N. Kuo, “In vivo ophthalmic robotically aligned optical coherence tomography with interchangeable cornea and retina imaging modules,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2024, to appear.
  12. A. Narawane, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Characterization and Optical Correction of Beam Wander at the Pupil Plane in Point-Scanning Ophthalmic OCT Systems,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2024, to appear.
  13. M. Draelos, P. Ortiz, A. Narawane, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. Izatt, “Multi-posture robotic optical coherence tomography for single-session standing, seated, and supine imaging,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2023, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 2498–2498.
  14. R. P. McNabb, Y. Tian, A.-H. Dhalla, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, J. A. Izatt, and A. N. Kuo, “Ophthalmic robotically aligned optical coherence tomography with interchangeable imaging module,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2023, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 2497–2497.
  15. Y. Tian, M. Draelos, R. P. McNabb, A.-H. Dhalla, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Efficient Anterior Chamber Cell Phantom Tracking Using Adaptive Scanning OCT,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2023, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 2917–2917.
  16. R. Laoprasert, M. Draelos, J. A. Izatt, R. P. McNabb, and A. N. Kuo, “Real-time dual sample imaging using Vortex open-source OCT software library,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2023, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 3375–3375.
  17. P. Ortiz, A. Narawane, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, J. A. Izatt, and M. Draelos, “Sensor-Driven Digital Motion Correction of Robotically Aligned Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Volumes,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2023, accepted.
  18. M. Draelos, P. Ortiz, A. Narawane, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Repeatable Retinal Imaging Independent of Posture and Head Pose with Robotically-Aligned Optical Coherence Tomography,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2023, submitted.
  19. Y. Tian, M. Draelos, R. P. McNabb, A.-H. Dhalla, A. N. Kuo, and and Joseph A. Izatt, “Efficient 3D cell tracking using adaptive scanning OCT,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2023, accepted.
  20. A. Narawane, M. Draelos, P. Ortiz, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Robotically-Aligned Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography with Multiple Illumination Angles for Enhanced Vessel Visualization,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2023, submitted.
  21. R. P. McNabb, Y. Tian, A.-H. Dhalla, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, J. A. Izatt, and A. N. Kuo, “Interchangeable imaging platform for ophthalmic robotically aligned optical coherence tomography,” in SPIE Photonics West, 2023, submitted.
  22. J. Zhang, J. Izatt, A.-H. Dhalla, K. Zhou, R. Qian, C. Viehland, and M. Draelos, “Real-time wide-FOV spectral-scanning FMCW 3D imaging and velocimetry,” in Frontiers in Optics + Laser Science, 2022.
  23. M. Draelos, P. Ortiz, A. Narawane, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Head orientation-independent optical coherence tomography with a robotically-aligned scanner,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jun. 2022, vol. 63, no. 7, p. 4454.
  24. P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, A. Narawane, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Robotically Aligned OCT Enables Synthetically Increased Field-of-View on Automatically Acquired Retinal Images,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jun. 2022, vol. 63, no. 7, p. 4098.
  25. A. Narawane, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated visualization of Henle’s fiber layer and outer nuclear layer in retinal volumes using robotically-aligned optical coherence tomography,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jun. 2022, vol. 63, no. 7, p. 3514.
  26. R. P. McNabb, A. Song, K.-M. Roh, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, S. Schuman, G. J. Jaffe, J. A. Izatt, and A. N. Kuo, “Autonomous Robotically Aligned OCT Enables Remote, Telehealth Retinal Imaging and Angiography,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jun. 2022, vol. 63, no. 7, p. 4453.
  27. M. Draelos, C. Viehland, and J. A. Izatt, “Adaptive Scanning for >5x Speedup in Volumetric Framerate with Point-Scan Optical Coherence Tomography,” in SPIE Photonics West – Digital Forum, Jan. 2022, no. 11948-22.
  28. M. Draelos, J. Sharib, P. J. Allen, D. G. B. III, M. E. Lidsky, K. N. Shah, C. Mantyh, and S. Zani, Jr, “Open and Robotic Pancreaticoduodenectomies Exhibit Comparable True Hospital Costs in Year-Adjusted Matched Cohort,” in IHPBA World Congress, Mar. 2022, no. FP05-1.
  29. A. Narawane, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated volumetric retinal imaging with complete visualization of Henleś fiber layer using robotically aligned optical coherence tomography,” in SPIE Photonics West, Jan. 2022, no. 11941-46.
  30. R. P. McNabb, A. Song, K. M. Roh, J. Lusk, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, S. Schuman, G. Jaffe, J. A. Izatt, and A. N. Kuo, “Autonomous Robotic Alignment Enables Remote, Telehealth OCT and OCTA Retinal Imaging,” in SPIE Photonics West, Jan. 2022, no. 11941-49.
  31. P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, A. Narawane, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Robotically Aligned Optical Coherence Tomography with Gaze Tracking and Retinal Image Montaging,” in SPIE Photonics West – Digital Forum, Jan. 2022, no. 11948-13.
  32. M. Draelos, P. Ortiz, C. Viehland, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Autonomous Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Eyes of Freestanding Human Subjects,” in IEEE International Symposium on Medical Robotics, Nov. 2021.
  33. E. Y. Choi, A. Song, K.-M. Roh, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, S. Chandramouli, J. A. Izatt, A. T. Limkakeng, R. P. McNabb, and A. N. Kuo, “Remote Fundus Imaging of Patients in the Emergency Department Using Robotically Aligned OCT,” in Women in Ophthalmology, 2021.
  34. A. Song, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, S. G. Schuman, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, J. A. Izatt, R. P. McNabb, and A. N. Kuo, “Combining artificial intelligence and robotics: A semi-automated optical coherence tomography-based approach for posterior eye disease screening,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jun. 2021, vol. 62, no. 8, p. 120.
  35. R. P. McNabb, P. Ortiz, K.-M. Roh, M. Draelos, S. G. Schuman, G. J. Jaffe, E. M. Lad, J. A. Izatt, and A. N. Kuo, “Robotically aligned OCT enables physically distanced imaging and relevant measurements in a retina clinic population,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jun. 2021, vol. 62, no. 8, p. 2457.
  36. P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, R. McNabb, A. Kuo, and J. Izatt, “Autofocusing and Autoaligning Robotic Optical Coherence Tomography,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jun. 2021, vol. 62, no. 8, p. 2555.
  37. A. Song, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, S. G. Schuman, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, J. A. Izatt, R. P. McNabb, and A. N. Kuo, “Combining artificial intelligence and robotics: A novel fully automated optical coherence tomography-based approach for eye disease screening,” in Journal of Clinical and Translational Science, Mar. 2021, vol. 5, no. s1, p. 122.
  38. R. McNabb, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, J. Izatt, and A. Kuo, “Robotically assisted optical coherence tomography for socially distanced clinical ophthalmic imaging,” in SPIE Photonics West, Feb. 2021, vol. 11623, p. 116231E.
  39. P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, R. P. McNabb, A. M. Narawane, C. Viehland, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Autoaligning and autofocusing robotic optical coherence tomography of the retina for subject motion, gaze, and defocus compensation,” in SPIE Photonics West, Mar. 2021, vol. 11630, p. 116300H.
  40. P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, R. P. McNabb, R. Qian, C. Viehland, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Robotically Aligned OCT for Subject Eye Translation and Rotation Compensation,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jun. 2020, vol. 61, no. 7, p. 2575.
  41. R. P. McNabb, P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, and J. A. Izatt, “Robotically Aligned OCT Imaging with Clinically Relevant Fields of View on the Retina,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jun. 2020, vol. 61, no. 7, p. 3252.
  42. P. Ortiz, M. Draelos, R. McNabb, A. Kuo, and J. Izatt, “Robotically-Aligned Optical Coherence Tomography with 5-Degree of Freedom Eye Tracking for Subject Motion and Gaze Compensation,” in SPIE Photonics West, Feb. 2020.
  43. M. Draelos, P. Ortiz, R. Qian, C. Viehland, K. Hauser, A. Kuo, and J. Izatt, “Robotically Aligned OCT Scanner for Automated Patient Tracking Retinal Imaging,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jul. 2019, vol. 60, no. 9, p. 1268.
  44. M. Draelos, G. Tang, B. Keller, K. Hauser, A. Kuo, and J. Izatt, “Automating Needle Insertions for Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty,” in Open Challenges and State-of-the-Art in Control System Design and Technology Development for Surgical Robotic Systems Workshop at IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), May 2019.
  45. M. Draelos, P. Ortiz, R. Qian, C. Viehland, B. Keller, T. DuBose, A. Kuo, and J. Izatt, “Robotically-aligned optical coherence tomography for automatic imaging of stationary and moving eyes,” in SPIE Photonics West, Feb. 2019.
  46. J. D. Li, O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, M. Jackson-Atogi, M. Draelos, C. Viehland, B. Keller, R. P. McNabb, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Constant linear velocity spiral scanning for real time 4D OCT with visualization in virtual reality,” in SPIE Photonics West, Feb. 2019.
  47. M. Draelos, B. Keller, G. Tang, K. Hauser, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “OCT-Guided Cooperative Robotic Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jul. 2018, vol. 59, no. 9, p. 1318.
  48. B. Keller, M. Draelos, G. Tang, S. Farsiu, A. N. Kuo, K. Hauser, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time Corneal Segmentation and 3D Needle Tracking in Intrasurgical OCT,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jul. 2018, vol. 59, no. 9, p. 1342.
  49. M. Draelos, B. Keller, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Immersive Virtual Reality for Live Volumetric Optical Coherence Tomography,” in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Jun. 2017, vol. 58, no. 8, p. 3116.
  50. M. Draelos, B. Keller, O. Carrasco-Zevallos, A. Kuo, and J. Izatt, “Seeing is believing: Real-time visualization and interaction with optical coherence tomography volumes in immersive virtual reality,” in SPIE Photonics West, Feb. 2017.